|Karnaataka is born
Birth of Karnaataka State
By Mohan Shenoy
|Continued from Page 1
Commanders of Unification Force
1. Benegal Rama Rao- Speech at Dharwad in 1903.
2. Justice S.S.Shettar- Speech at Dharwad in 1906
3. Alur Venkata Rao- Wrote an article in the Vagbhushana magazine demanding a Presidency of Kannadigas from the
British in 1907. Organized the All-Karnataka Writers’ Conferences in 1907 and 1908 in Dharwad.
4. Sir M. Visweswaraya- Founded Karnataka Sahitya Parishat in 1915 in Bangalore.
5. Mudaveedu Krishna Rao from Dharwad.
6. F.G.Halakatti from Bijapur.
7. K. Rajagopal Krishna Rao from Mangalore.
8. Tammannappa Chikkode from Jamakhandi.
9. H.V.Nanjundaiah from Mysore.
10. K.P.Puttanna Chetty from Bangalore.
11. Karpur Srinivasa Rao from Mysore state.
12. M.Kantaraje Urs from Mysore.
13. M. Venkatakrishnaiah from Mysore state.
14. Rao Bahadur R. Narasimhachar from Mysore.
15. Karnataka Ekikarana Sabha- Dharwad, 1916.
|Commendable efforts for Unification
A unanimous resolution demanding unification was passed at the Karnataka State Political Conference at Dharwad in
1920 where V.P.Madhav Rao was the president.
A separate Karnataka Provincial Congress Committee was constituted at the Nagpur Congress in 1920 and S.
Nijalingappa was its leader. This became a platform for the Kannada Commanders to fight for the Unification.
After Independence the Karnataka Unification leaders were restless to get the state formed as early as possible. They
resorted to hunger strike the major one held under the leadership of A.J.Dodmeti in 1953 was aimed at such a result.
Akhanda Karnataka Rajya Nirmana Parishat took the lead in launching an aggressive agitation by defieing law and
courting arrest. Jinaraja Hegde of Moodbidri, Chennappa Wali, Chinmayaswamy Omkarmath, Veerabhadrappa Sirur
and Alavandy Shivamurty Swamy were involved in this struggle.
Potti Sriramulu held a fast unto death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1953. He succumbed to the fasting and
soon the Central Government issued order to constitute the new state of Andhra Pradesh. The Bellary district was
bifurcated and seven of its taluks were merged with Mysore state and Telugu speaking areas such as Adoni, Alur and
Rayadurga were included in the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
The other Kannada areas were still waiting to be unified with a new Karnataka state. There were more severe
agitations. Without wasting any more time the Central Government appointed a States Reorganization Commission
with Fazal Ali as the chairman in December 1953.
|The present administration of the sovereign state known as Republic of India has divided the country into states to
decentralize the governance. The states are further divided into districts; each district has a number of taluks and each
taluk has a number of gramas (villages). There are thirty districts in the state of Karnataka. They are: Bangalore Urban,
Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Chamrajnagar, Chickmagalur, Chickballapur, Chitradurga,
Dakshina Kannada, Davangere, Dharwar, Gadag, Gulbarga, Haveri, Hassan, Kodagu, Kolar, Koppal, Mandya, Mysore,
Ramnagar, Raichur, Shivamogga, Tumkur, Udupi, Uttara Kannada and Yadagiri.
Demarkation of Karnaataka
Indian land mass was known by the name of Jamboo Dweepa (dweepa=island in Sanskrit) and the nation as
Bhaaratvarsha. There were natural calamities like floods and droughts, earthquakes and hurricanes that made life
difficult for the inhabitants. In addition there were wars between the feudal lords resulting in mass killings, looting and
There was no Karnataka demarkated in those days in the present shape. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgadh and Jharkhand were all merged but divided into a number of
small cluster of villages named after the number of units contained in them. Each unit was spread along the water body
such as the river or the lake. Water availability determined the habitat of people and their grouping. There were fights for
land, water and women. The boundaries of habitat clusters were determined on the similarity and commonality of
physical appearance, language, knowledge, dress and food preferences. Those people who spoke the same
language, ate similar food, appeared alike in physical appearance and covered their body with identical materials and
extent lived together in communities.
These events lead to migration of the population from one place to another. Migration lead to changes in life patterns,
inter-race marriages and often improvement in living conditions. There was distribution of knowledge and wealth and
also women. The migration of people living around the river Saraswathi parallel to the river Sindhu resulted in
movement of people towards the eastern plains beyond river Ganga. Communities moved from Kashmir to Pataliputra
to Vanga and beyond.
Many communities moved south to Vindhya mountains and beyond. Thick forests and wide rivers hindered their
movement and often they stopped at the approach of a river or a lake and set up their camps on the banks of the water
bodies. If there was no further problems then they continued their camps and built houses, raised crops and cattle and
claimed the land as their own. Other groups that arrived later would like to snatch away the land from them and there
would be fights to settle the supremacy. The land that is now demarkated as Karnaataka is a part of the Indian
peninsula. It is not really an isthmus or a neck of land but a broad tail extending from the body above to a narrower
territory tapering into a cape at Kanyakumari. This broad tail of India is artificially divided into many states: Kerala on the
west coast and Tamil Nadu on the east coast form the lower part. Karnaataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarath on the
west coast and Andhra Pradesh and Orissa on the east coast form the rest of this peninsular India. Above the states of
Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra the state of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgadh and Jharkhand form the inland
territories.This southern land often referred to as South India has the Arabian sea in the west and the Bay of Bengal on
the east. The two seas are continuous with a very vast salt-water body known as the Indian Ocean. The island country
now known as Sri Lanka was also a British colony, the erstwhile Ceylon before. It is close to the eastern coast of Tamil
Nadu and historically and culturally connected to the Indian peninsula.
|Reference: History of Karnataka in the Karnataka state gazetteer Part 1 edited by Suryanath U. Kamath, 1982.
|Reach of Karnaataka
|The Indian civilization was dynamic and the people constantly sought better ways and means to improve the living
conditions. Arts and crafts, music and drama, prose and poetry and construction of palaces, temples, roads, roadside
resting places, water and food supply for pilgrims etc. were constantly being improved.
The land now known as Karnaataka did not lag behind in these human endeavours. Kings and emperors always
wished to conquer this land and hoped to become happy and rich. Kannadigas are not a narrow-minded people. Most of
them are friendly and like to involve themselves in the affairs of the world. The hard-core Kannadigas of the old Mysore
state and of norther districts such as Gulbarga, Yadgir, Bidar, Bijapur, Raichur, Dharwad, Gadag, Bellary, Dawangere,
Chikmagalur, Shimoga and Belgaum are united in being the amicable hosts for outsiders since long.
In the Ramayana period we had Lord Rama come to Karnataka in pusuit of Ravana and later with the help of Sugriva
and Hanuman defeated the Sri Lankan King and released his wife Sita from captivity. There is a temple dedicated to
King Janaka near Chikmagalur connected with the performance of Sarpa Yaaga by him. In the Mahabharatha period we
had guests from the North again. Sahadeva a Pandava brother had ruled parts of Karnataka in those days. But more
recently in the first few centuries after Christ Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka had extended their empire to Karnaataka
and beyond in the South. The Karnaataka warriors belonging to the Rashtrakuta dynasty spread their empire beyond
Bhima river to Betul of Madhya Pradesh and Amaravathi of Maharashtra. Another branch of Rashtrakutas known as
Rashtrakutas of Gujarath ruled Gujarat in the 9th century.
Vengi in the present Andhra Pradesh had been ruled by Chalukyas of Karnaataka. Pulakeshi II of the Chalukya dynasty
had ruled Nasik and Nausari regions. Another branch of the Chalukyas ruled Vemulavada region of the present
Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh in the eighth century. Ganjam district of the present Orissa was under the
Kadamba king of Banavasi.
Sendraka dynasty originating in Shimoga district had branched out to Chakrakuta of Bastar region calling themselves
the Chhindaka Nagas or Sindas. There were Sena kings in Bengal who were originally from Mulgund in the present
Dharwad district. Mithila in Bihar had a Karnata king Nanyadeva in the end of the eleventh century A.D.
Karnataka had contributed freely to the building activities all over India. Skilled craftsmen from Karnaataka were
appointed by the rulers of regions far and wide. The Karnaataka art, sculpture, and architectural style represented by the
temples in Aihole, Patadakal, Badami, Belur, Halebid are seen in Ellora, Ajanta and Elephanta caves, and temples in
Mount Abu, Nasik, Dwarka, Pattan and other places too many to recollect.
The coastal Kannadigas were expert ship builders. These ships were used in export and import business between the
East African countries, Arab nations, and in the East, the Chinese, the Burmese, Thai, Cambodian, Malayan, Sumatran,
Javanese and Philippine people. Trade with Sri Lanka was a regular feature. Karnaataka sent sea-faring warriors to the
South East Asian countries and colonised them in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D.
Gold, Silver, Copper and Iron were the most-sought after metals mined in the Karnataka mines. The rulers of ancient
Rome were minting coins with gold imported from Karnaataka. Diamonds were abundant in the mines of Adoni, Alur
and many other regions. They were in demand all over India and abroad. Jewelers and diamond cutters from Karnataka
were famous for their skills from even ancient times. They were taken to places far and wide either by pursuation or force
to manufacture breath-taking varieties of neck-laces, bangles, bracelets, and even crowns, sword handles, idol
|The cottons, silks, and manufactured goods of these from Karnaataka were in demand all over the world. Rice, Jowar;
Pulses such as Toor, Mung, Sugar, Jaggery, Groundnut oil, Coconut products such as oil and oilcake, Cotton, Onions,
Tomatoes, betel nuts and medicinal preparations, spices such as Pepper, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Cashew nuts and
processed kernels were exported in large quantities to other regions in India and also to countries outside India.
Mesopotamia, Assyria, Egypt, Persia and other Middle Eastern countries were customers of Karnaataka merchants. One
important symbol viz. a double-headed eagle known as Gandaberunda had been seen commonly in Asia monor and
also in Karnaataka indicating contacts between the two far-flung regions of the world. Elephants of Karnaataka after
being well-tamed, were in demand for use in transportation and also in wars. Cattle such cows, bullocks, buffaloes
were also bred in the region and sold in the animal-fairs. Cows were not slaughtered since they were considered as
sacred. Sheep were bred in large numbers in the northern regions of Karnaataka and their wool was used to weave
woollen blankets. Karnaataka woollen blankets were sold in markets throughout India. Raw wool was exported to other
Wood from the forests of Karnaataka was in demand all over India. Carpenters from Karnaataka were employed by
kings and chieftains for making wooden furniture and building houses. Wood was utilized to construct ceilings and roofs
of houses, wheels of bullock carts, howdas to be placed on elephant backs and palanquins for travel by ladies. Sandal
wood was in great demand for both making articles and scents.
Throughout the history of Karnaataka the businessmen of Karnaatka had set up Mandi in the ports of Mangalore, Malpe
and Karwar, to export the produce to other places through the sea route. Inland roads and later railways were developed
to transport various items to other regions in the country.
Karnaataka was a knowledge hub to India and to the world. Religious thinkers such as Madhwacharya and Basavanna
were born here. Vijayanagara kings encouraged writers, poets and muscicians, dancers, etc., to promote talents.
Purandara Daasa, Kanaka Daasa, Pampa etc., have made Karnaataka proud by their poems and kirtans.
|According to ancient Indian literature this universe has a total life span of one Kalpa. Universe includes all creation.
Kalpa starts when the creation begins and ends when the universe is totally destroyed. A new Kalpa begins when a new
creation starts. A Kalpa is such a long time that our human mind can not configure it fully. Therefore a Kalpa is further
divided into many periods each known as a Manvantara(s). One Manvantara is further divided into Yugantara(s). Each
Yugantara is divided into four Yuga(s). The first of these Yuga(s) is called Kretha and spreads over 17,28,000 calendar
years. The second Yuga is called Thretha and spreads over 12,96,000 calendar years. The third Yuga is known as the
Dwaapara and extends to over 8,64,000 calendar years. The fourth is known as Kali and spreads over 4,32,000 calendar
years. Considering that this earth was a part of the creation and a part of the universe in the beginning and imagining
that the earth was too hot then, one can deduce that life began to appear on the earth after many years a Kalpa had
begun. Approximately half of a Kalpa was spent in getting the earth hospitable for any life.
Evolution of Knowledge
Our knowledge of evolution of life on earth is limited and we can only write stories based on what we saw, what we
heard, what we read in the literature and what we think is most likely. It is most likely that at the beginning of the current
Yuga viz. Kali Yuga which has completed 5,110 years (out of the total 4,32,000 years) already, had people living in
civilized communities on this land known as India.
After painstaking research and some imagination it has been accepted generally that Romans and Greeks had contacts
with India around 400 B.C
|Kannada Historical Aspects
The historians are reluctant to accept what is
written in the Epics like Raamaayana and
Mahaabhaaratha and if the stories of Raama and
Krishna actually took place. Even the discoveries of
pillars and idols which can be connected
theoretically with the legends of Raamaayana and
Mahaabhaaratha in many parts of southern India
have not convinced the historians. If we accept the
theory that Raama lived in the Thretha yuga then
the story of Raamaayana occurred at least prior to
Dwaapara which is 8,64,000 years ago. If we
accept that Krishna lived in the Dwaapara yuga
then Mahaabharatha occurred at least 5110 years
|Karnaataka is born
Birth of Karnaataka State
By Mohan Shenoy
. The historians do not have any records of activities of people on earth prior to the time of Harappa and Mohenjodaro
civilizations which are estimated to have existed about 5000 years ago. The birth of Jesus Christ during the Roman
civilization is accepted by the historians. The birth of Gauthama Buddha and of Jain Mahaaveer are accepted without
much question. Both Buddha and Mahaaveera lived about 400 years before the birth of Jesus. The length of a year was
fixed based upon the lunar and solar movements, and fairly accurate calculations of the time past was made by people in
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